Archive for January, 2009|Monthly archive page
If you will kindly read the entry in the previous post the title above will be self-explanatory. To see all posts with the most recent first (after the introduction) click on the “blog” tab near the top-left of this page.
A neighbor on the other side of our road experienced the surprise of having no water from her well this morning. Depending upon how well insulated a well head is in this part of Florida – freezing can happen in this kind of weather.
Though my well is properly insulated I take an extra precaution. I run an outdoor electric line from an exterior outlet to near the well site and then put a shop light (electric with a conventional light bulb) on the surface and drape old sheets to build a makeshift tent over the well assembly so that the heat from the bulb will help to keep the temperature up. So long as the bulb does not burn out – it provides significant protection.
When water freezes, it expands by about 9%. This exerts tremendous force if the water is confined which can do a lot of damage. Among the things that can be ruined is the pump and hose of a pressure cleaner stored where it gets very cold – e.g. a storage shed. One should be sure to blow out the water from the line leading from the pump to the spray wand. The pump can be ruined by the expansion of water inside as it freezes. There is a simple product sold in hardware stores where a lubricant/anti-freeze chemical (in a pressurized can) can easily be injected into the pump to protect it during the cold season. In my opinion, it’s well worth the peace of mind.
Ordinary garden hoses left outside can split if they are left with water inside and the nozzle at the end of the hose in the closed position. In weather like this I make sure my hoses outside are water free.
LIKE MOST POSTING ON THIS WEBLOG, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE TUTORIAL PORTION, THIS IS TIME-SENSITIVE. EVEN ONE DAY CAN MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE SO IF YOU ARE NOT READING THIS CLOSE TO THE POSTING TIME, PLEASE CONSULT YOUR LOCAL MEDIA OR ON-LINE RESOURCES FOR UPDATES.
I’m posting this on the evening of January 21, 2009 from my home in Citrus County, Florida. 22 miles NE of my location is Ocala; 12 miles SSE is Inverness.
Forecasts for the low tomorrow morning in this part of Central Florida (specifically, the town of Hernando) range from 18 degrees to 24 degrees Fahrenheit (depending upon the source). Though that may seem to be a broad range it is quite possible to find those two ends of the forecasts both a reality within a very small area – arguably, less than a quarter-section (1/2 mile by 1/2 mile square). This is due to the highly variable properties of unlike surfaces (heterogeneous surfaces) when it comes to the loss of thermal energy via infrared radiation.
On a larger scale, the satellite image above, completed at 3:45 P.M. E.S.T. today shows Florida virtually cloud free. This means that all during the daylight hours, even though solar radiation was pouring in, terrestrial (earth) radiation was flowing out freely in the form of infrared – much more freely and abundantly than it would have had the air been humid and had clouds been present. Tonight, the infrared will continue escaping in its space-bound journey. The moisture content of the air is low and there will be no clouds though there could be fog (technically speaking, fog is a cloud).
Water vapor (water in the invisible gaseous state) is the most active and abundant of the so-called greenhouse gases. The presence of clouds suggests that up at that level there is plenty of water vapor (that which resides between and below the cloud droplets that has not condensed into cloud droplets). So, on a humid, cloudy day one would expect a strong greenhouse effect keeping thermal energy “trapped” at the lower levels. BUT – TONIGHT THAT IS NOT GOING TO HAPPEN because, as stated, the air is dry and cloud free. Tonight heat will be escaping rapidly and little will be sent back and none will be pouring in from the sun. So – the temperature will drop dramatically.
Typically, there is about a 30 minute period after sunrise when the thermal energy escaping earth’s surface at that location exceeds the amount of thermal energy coming in from the sun. That is why the coldest moment of a 24 hour period is most often after sunrise – about 30 minutes or so.
The satellite image shows how once the cold air coming down from a component of the north leaves the continent to flow over the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, moisture is picked up and clouds form. Notice how they form in short order leaving only a narrow cloud free zone over water near the land. The fact that the water surfaces are warmer than the continental surfaces at this time of year also play a role in that cloud development.
To my neighbors in Citrus County, Florida: Expect sub-freezing temperatures Wednesday morning and Thursday morning. There is a distinct possibility that Friday morning will be nearly as cold. Generally speaking, the coldest time during a 24 hour period under these circumstances is about 30 minutes after sunrise.
LIKE MOST POSTING ON THIS WEBLOG, THIS IS TIME-SENSITIVE AND WAS ENTERED DURING THE AFTERNOON OF JANUARY 19, 2009. EVEN ONE DAY CAN MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE SO IF YOU ARE NOT READING THIS CLOSE TO THE POSTING TIME, PLEASE CONSULT YOUR LOCAL MEDIA OR ON-LINE RESOURCES FOR UPDATES.
LIKE MOST POSTING ON THIS WEBLOG, THIS IS TIME-SENSITIVE AND WAS ENTERED DURING THE AFTERNOON OF JANUARY 11, 2009. EVEN ONE DAY CAN MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE SO IF YOU ARE NOT READING THIS CLOSE TO THE POSTING TIME, PLEASE CONSULT YOUR LOCAL MEDIA OR ON-LINE RESOURCES FOR UPDATES.
Here in Citrus County, Florida an approaching cold front is expected to arrive tonight (Sunday, January 11, 2009). Then the lowest temperatures will get progressively lower for a few days. For Hernando a small town nearby which is 23 miles from the Gulf of Mexico, the current 10-day forecast is for the following LOWS shortly after 7:30 AM:
50˚F. Monday, January 12
42˚F. Tuesday, January 13
33˚F. Wednesday, January 14
31˚F. Thursday, January 15
30˚F. Friday, January 16
28˚F. Saturday, January 17
38˚F. Sunday, January 18
45˚F. Monday, January 19
41˚F. Tuesday, January 20
42˚F. Wednesday, January 21
Because of the diverse micro-climatology of this area, expect even colder temperatures in certain areas that cool off very quickly during the night.
Ocala, about 40 miles inland from the Gulf of Mexico, might expect temperatures 4 degrees lower than those listed above.
Interestingly, it is typical for the minimum temperatures of a day to occur 30 minutes or so AFTER sunrise. This is because during that early portion of daylight the sun is so low on the horizon (thus the intensity of solar radiation is weak) that more heat escapes the surface than is received from the sun. People who must protect their crops from freezing temperatures know this.
THE IMAGE ABOVE shows a steam fog over a roof in Central Florida during a cold morning last month. You are looking southward at the west side of my house. You can see frost on the roof except in places where the lack of insulation kept it warmer underneath – including the parallel trusses.
“Steam fog” is actually a MISNOMER. That is because what you see is not steam. Steam, in the strict scientific sense, is invisible. YOU HAVE NEVER SEEN STEAM. What you see rising from a teapot of boiling water is not steam. By scientific definition, steam is water vapor and water vapor is defined as water in the gaseous state. There is some water vapor in the air where you are this very moment but you can’t see it. What you are actually “seeing” and calling steam is liquid water in the form of tiny droplets, not unlike cloud droplets. That liquid has formed by the condensation of water vapor (the steam which neither you nor anyone else can see) into tiny little spheres of liquid.
NOTE ABOUT STEAM: You can search for definitions of steam and you will find some alternate ones which will use terms like “mist.” In the non-scientific world there are even alternate understandings of the meaning of vapor. Please understand that I am talking about steam as defined by the modern physicist, chemist, meteorologist, physical oceanographer, etc.
WHAT WAS HAPPENING ON AND OVER MY ROOF WHEN THIS IMAGE WAS TAKEN was that frost on the south-facing side and on heated edges of the roof was melting, some of that resultant liquid evaporated into water vapor (steam) but the water vapor quickly condensed back into the liquid phase due to the cold air into which it ascended (water vapor generally rises easily in still air because the water molecules are so much lighter than the nitrogen and oxygen molecules making up most of the air). NOTE: The only other remote possibility is that the frost was sublimating into water vapor but the air was not nearly dry enough nor was the temperature cold enough for this to be happening; sublimation is the phase change whereby a solid becomes a gas totally bypassing the liquid phase – as does dry ice. Vapor pressure plays a significant role in sublimation but I’m ignoring that now since that is not what was happening.
Because evaporation is an important component to the conditions leading up to the development of a steam fog, many meteorologist have chosen to refer to them as evaporation fogs. To be more specific, a steam fog is a type of evaporation fog.
Steam fogs occur when the air is colder than the moist surface. Perhaps you have seen steam fogs over liquid surfaces like a wet asphalt highway after a heavy, cooling rain, over a heated swimming pool, or over other bodies of water that are warmer than the air above. In time, more images of steam fogs will be posted on this site.
SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT STEAM BURNS AND ANOTHER NOTE ABOUT CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS: One reason why steam burns are so serious is because not only is the victim injured by the very hot steam (super-heated water vapor) but also by the extra heat given off when that steam condenses. Condensation (the opposite to evaporation) gives off heat called the latent heat of condensation. It is the same heat that was taken away from the environment where the water vapor was originally formed from the evaporation of liquid water. So, evaporation is a cooling process (taking heat from the environment where it’s occurring) and condensation is a heating process (adding heat to the environment where it is occurring).
In home central air conditioning systems the place where the coolant is being condensed by compression will be outside because both compression and condensation raise the temperature. If there was not a fan to circulate air out there, the compressor unit would “fry.” The cooling half of the unit, that which is inside, is the evaporator. A fan blows air through the cold evaporator coils in order to make that air cooler.
What a terrific way to start the new year in this weblog – with an image of nearly the whole earth showing cloud patterns over both the daylight half and the darkness half. The two rows of extratropical cyclones (one over the middle latitudes of each hemisphere) are striking. Since a very high percentage of the over 6.7 billion people on earth live in the middle latitudes, and since these cyclonic systems and their cold fronts commonly extend into the lower latitudes, you might very well be under the influence of one of these systems this very moment. They are marching generally from west to east in both hemispheres followed by cold (or cooler) anticyclones. For example, I live in the low latitudes at 28.972 degrees north and we get several frontal passages.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone is apparent, especially over Africa. Notice how it is further south now over that continent than during the North Atlantic hurricane season.
HERE’S WISHING YOU ALL A HAPPY NEW YEAR. That’s just the beginning because my wishes for you are many. That: You “know” love and feel both loved and lovable, you are never bored, you have a long gratitude list, happiness is not illusive, you feel as good as possible for your circumstances, life’s pros far outweigh the cons, and you experience peace and good will always.
Tonie A. Toney (Cloudman23)
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NOTES: Extratropical means “outside of the tropics.”
Middle latitudes are strictly defined as the regions between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude (both hemispheres).
Extratropical cyclones differ from tropical cyclones in the following ways. ET cyclones are “cold core” lows while T cyclones are “warm core” lows. ET cyclones generally have fronts associated with them, T cyclones do not. ET cyclones originate mostly in the middle latitudes while T cyclones originate in the low latitudes (0 degrees to 30 degrees). ET cyclones are asymetrical with decided wind direction changes and measurable temperature changes on either side of the fronts, while T cyclones are more nearly circular.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone is where the Northeast Trades and the Southeast Trades converge. Years ago it was referred to as the Doldrums and also the Equatorial Low. Those two outdated terms are still found in the literature and even on line. Generally, the ITCZ migrates northward during the northern hemisphere warm season and southward during the northern hemisphere cold season.