Archive for the ‘Hurricane misconceptions’ Category
Enlarge images in this posting with left clicks.
ILLUSTRATION B – map of Citrus County showing locations of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands which are subject to storm surges, the sandy Brooksville Ridge occupying more than one-third of the area, and the Tsala Apopka Plain containing the majority of the county’s fresh water lakes –
– TWO INDEPENDENT LEFT CLICKS ENLARGE THE IMAGE ABOVE TO THE FULLEST –
I Am Very Happy Living In Citrus County.
Of course, being retired, being a nature-lover and being relatively healthy helps. All locations have pros and cons but with respect to the latter I have yet to regret the move with my extended family 9 years ago. We had experienced hurricanes and tropical storms through the years. Our house was a total loss in 1992’s category 5 hurricane Andrew; it was at ground zero in Homestead which is located 27.6 miles (as the crow flies) southwest of Miami. The house belonging to my wife’s folks, less than a mile away, had extensive damage. What a terrible mess was caused by the only hurricane to make landfall upon the U.S.A. that season. But when we moved to Citrus County 13 years later we were conscious of the fact that by leaving South Florida we had NOT left “hurricane country.” I felt that Citrus County would be safer in that respect but certainly not a hurricane-proof location. It didn’t take long for me to meet people who felt that there was something special about Citrus and other nearby counties that made a serious hurricane event almost inconceivable.
Complacency is a real problem in hurricane country. I don’t claim to be an expert on complacency but there have been times in my life where I might have contracted the disorder I call “terminal uniqueness.” Therefore, I am acquainted with denial, ignorance, procrastination, irresponsibility, and “living in a dream world” because I’ve been there; for all I know, I’m there still. I believe that every time I point a finger at someone, three are pointing back at me and this is written in that spirit. Thus, I’m not trying to indict anyone here; I’m just trying to state what appears to me to be true.
As I see it – Citrus County, as a whole, though probably not the “geographical poster child” for complacency when it comes to hurricanes and tropical storms, seems to be after the title – in spite of its experience with “The Florida Four in 2004” (see illustration C below). I’m not speaking of those who vigorously engage in emergency planning and increasing awareness in the community. And of course I’m not speaking to residents reading this who have engaged in effective advanced planning and preparation. No, I’m speaking of the average Jack and/or Jill occupying a dwelling in Citrus County; I acknowledge that there are plenty of exceptions. To be sure – this is not a problem exclusive to Citrus County. I believe it’s prevalent in all or nearly all parts of the country susceptible to tropical cyclonic weather. Please click on this graphic below for enlargement.
The four 2004 storm tracks above are dated for your convenience. For example: Tropical storm Bonnie’s track runs from August 3rd to August 14.
NOTE: For an infrared satellite loop of the majority of the 2004 season, click on the first link below. Date and time indicators appear along the bottom margin. Then for an animated loop which is easier to interpret click on the second link.
I moved to Florida in 1956 during my high school junior year and I don’t remember a time since when I have not been conscious of the potential for tropical weather to wreak havoc upon lives and property and I have always tried to be prepared. If you were to have simply driven by my house you could have observed elements of hurricane preparedness. That is still true today. It is a high priority item in my family. I have been an active advocate of hurricane awareness and preparation for many years. If anything, I hope that illustrations in this weblog posting will increase awareness at least among the few who see it. So let me call your attention to the illustration below. Most residents who see such illustrations are, at the very least, surprised. Naturally some point out that this covers a long period of time. But really, is 161 years a long time in the whole scheme of things? My point in showing this is: TROPICAL CYCLONES ARE A REALITY IN CITRUS COUNTY. Also, please be aware of the fact that the plot lines show the paths of the centers of storms and that the storms have a width that is not apparent here. The center of a storm does not have to come within just a few miles for it to be of great concern; the center can be many miles away.
Even before leaving Homestead for good in 2005 – while visiting Citrus County I detected the existence of a notion of immunity to any sort of serious tropical cyclonic weather (e.g. hurricanes, tropical storms). Though I have no scientific evidence to back this – I classify the “no-need-to-be-concerned” feeling as widespread among the Citrus County population. In fact, sometimes “low-to-no” hurricane probability has been drastically overstated here (I’ve heard it and I’ve heard about it). It seems that “The Florida Four in 2004 ” did very little to squelch the delusion. Still – I would have expected that particular season to have provided a huge “wake up call.”
NOTE: The “official” Florida Four in 2004 includes hurricane Charley which struck Punta Gorda on August 13 and later moved through South Carolina. It does not include tropical storm Bonnie.
Just a few weeks ago I overheard a hostess at a popular restaurant in adjacent Marion County telling a booth full of patrons, “We just don’t get hurricanes here.” Recently a friend of mine suggested that there was something about our county’s geography, specifically the Brooksville Ridge, that prevented hurricane visits. That reminded me of Muncie, Indiana where I used to live; it is alleged to be immune from tornadoes because of a particular bend in the river flowing through it. Also, a protective blessing from an Indian chief has been cited.
“The Florida Four in 2004” did not produce the extent of damage or flooding that raised eyebrows all over the nation and, for now, a sense of security from lethal storms seems to cling on. This is not a prediction nor is it my wish, but I do fear that a hurricane coming through this area has the potential to surprise a lot of people and make them wonder what they were thinking. And such an event could be deadly and most certainly destructive.
Storm Surge Potential
When I was looking for property in Citrus County one of my big concerns was the encroachment of wind-driven sea water with a storm – the so-called storm surge. Upon investigation I found what I expected – that if it was important to me personally to avoid surge potential I should avoid about one-third of the county’s land area – the western third.
NOTE: Illustration B, “map of Citrus County” might be useful to you here.
Most of that western third is undeveloped but there are two noteworthy communities within it, Homosassa and most of Crystal River. Therefore, early on I decided not to settle on the Gulf Coastal Lowlands but instead chose the Brooksville Ridge. In my opinion, the broad, hilly, sandy ridge is, by far, the safest place for a home or business in the county because of it’s higher elevations and greater ability to handle large amounts of precipitation often associated with a storm. The highest point in the county is within the Citrus Hills Golf Course above a 230′ contour – my Google Earth measurement has it at 235 feet.
ILLUSTRATION E – Storm surge portion of Citrus County, the western third (color-coded). T = tropical storm and the numbers represent hurricane categories. Left click to enlarge or go to the next illustration for more detail.
FOR STORM SURGE ZOOM CAPABILITIES, click on this link:
To be fair, Citrus county seems not to have been visited by category 5 or 4 hurricanes though at nearby Cedar Key a 1896 hurricane was a category 4 according to some estimates – crediting it with 135 mph winds.
NOTE: As far as we know, only three Category 5 storms have struck the U.S.A. – the 1935 Florida Keys or Labor Day hurricane, Hurricane Camille which hit Mississippi in 1969, and 1992’s Hurricane Andrew. The records aren’t good enough to say whether any earlier storms were Category 5 by today’s standards and they don’t go back very far with respect to the length of time that such storms have visited the North American mainland.
But lesser tropical cyclones, like tropical storms and tropical depressions, can produce both microbursts and tornadoes and simple straight-line gusts can far exceed the sustained wind velocity of such storms. Of course this is true for hurricanes too. Illustration G below shows initiation points of tornadoes spawned by tropical cyclones (e.g. tropical depressions, tropical storms, hurricanes) from 1995 through 2010. The entire report is available in the PDF format here:
– ILLUSTRATION G –
Please enlarge this with a left click. This illustration is on page 7 of Roger Edwards’ report which is available to you as the previous PDF document link titled Tornadoes Tropical Cyclones.
Recently, I looked into the proximity of past storms near my church and created a graphic for those who might be interested. Since the church is located in Lecanto and near the geographical center of Citrus County, I’m including the graphic in this weblog entry. Notice that I picked a small radius of 25 miles yet the illustration clearly shows a lot of activity. Had I picked a larger radius, say 50 miles, the graphic would show many more storms ( for an example of what I mean, see illustration D with a 100 mile radius centered on Inverness).
– ILLUSTRATION H –
Note: If you would like to utilize the program I used to derive illustration D and illustration H, here is a link:
The Relationship Between Wind Velocity and Its Potential Force
There is one last point I’d like to make and I have found in my years of teaching that there are many people who do not know this: One would think that the potential force of an 80 mph wind would be twice that of a 40 mph wind. But that is not true. The relationship is not linear – it is exponential. An 80 mph wind has FOUR TIMES the potential force of a 40 mph wind. When someone looking at the historical chart above sees mostly tropical storms (green) and category 1 hurricanes (yellow) they typically tend to minimize the dangers. They don’t realize that an 80 mph category 1 hurricane wind is far worse than a 60 mph tropical storm wind. I’ve done the math and, as it turns out, an 80 mph hurricane wind has 1.78 times the potential force of a 60 mph tropical storm wind (or close to twice the potential force). So, in even more simple terms, small increases in wind velocity result in large increases in potential force! For more discussion on the relationship between velocity and force, click on this link to a previous weblog entry:
My next mission is to discuss this with some people in the area to learn their attitudes and feelings on the subject. I’m sure I will learn a lot and gain more knowledge and insight. For example, I’ll bet there are some who just don’t feel it’s worth the effort – that they will just evacuate and let insurance take care of things, or maybe take some losses and leave for good if a serious storm messes things up. Others must find permanent window and door protection to be “cost prohibitive” and have plans to somehow temporarily protect those openings – maybe at the last minute. None of those approaches work for me; there are just too many variables. For example, try buying plywood when it becomes fairly clear that a hurricane is coming your way. Or – consider what it might be like if you do plan to evacuate but wait too long and are unable to do so. Being inside a home that is breaking apart during a serious hurricane is no picnic.
NOTE: See link below to “Window Protection Is Essential”.
I suspect that there are many who feel they have thought things through and that their apparent inaction is merely a function of our individual differences in thinking. Perhaps they do indeed have a “plan” albeit different than mine. What’s the saying – “Different strokes for different folks”? Regardless, I strongly recommend advanced preparation.
I observed complacency among many people in pre-Andrew Homestead and suspect it exists there again because, after all, that was 22 years ago. So why should I expect a greater awareness and more obvious preparation along the Nature Coast where Citrus County is located? The fact is, I don’t. But I can dream, can’t I?
Citrus County Emergency Management – http://www.sheriffcitrus.org/EM/
Disaster Preparedness (Florida Department of Health – Citrus County) http://www.floridahealth.gov/chdCitrus/disasterpreparedness.htm
Hurricane misconceptions: https://cloudman23.wordpress.com/2008/09/23/952/
Saffir-Simpson hurricane categories: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshws.php
Sustained winds: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/D4.html
Window protection is essential: https://cloudman23.wordpress.com/2008/09/08/window-protection-for-hurricanes-is-essential/
The effects of hurricane winds upon a house: https://cloudman23.wordpress.com/2008/09/10/the-effect-of-hurricane-winds-upon-a-house/
Hurricane focus on Central Florida: https://cloudman23.wordpress.com/2008/09/13/hurricane-focus-on-central-florida/
Why is Florida so humid? https://cloudman23.wordpress.com/2009/07/04/why-is-florida-so-humid/
Since I began this site on August 24 2008, it’s been averaging about 12 “hits” per hour. So, I’m not setting the Internet world on fire. I’m sure that many of my “followers” are either friends and neighbors, family, or former students. Of course a number of people reach this site as a consequence of a search term that blends with something I’ve discussed.
This is my first posting in over three months. That might be strange for a site devoted mostly to tropical meteorology but those who know me understand that I devote most of my tropical weather attention to those systems that cause alarm to folks in Central Florida where I now reside.
The six month long official hurricane season whose last day was November 30 was an active one but not for Central Florida. There were some storms in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf that caused concern but, if you have been following this site you have no doubt noticed that I ignored most of them. I choose to refrain from alarming anyone unnecessarily when I deduce that a storm in question is not likely to bother us. On the other hand, the National Weather Service errs on the side of caution and consequently the “coverage” was vigorous and reports were easily obtained through the media. Though I think that the media does a good job, generally speaking, I am inclined to suspect that they are spectacularizing their reports. There were times when it appeared that a storm would be coming our way here in West-Central Florida but my information and gut-level feelings indicated a very low probability. SPECIAL NOTE: It appears that in using “spectacularizing” I’ve used a word whose acceptance is debatable; it appears to be a mere colloquialism but that fits me well.
This year’s hurricane season was very active! An average northern hemisphere Atlantic/Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico season has 11 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 intense hurricanes.
For the 2011 season there were 19 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 intense hurricanes.
But for the U.S.A. specifically – the season was unusually timid. In his summary of the season, Dr. Jeff Masters (one of my important sources) wrote: “Only two named storms made landfall, Tropical Storm Lee, which hit Louisiana with 60 mph winds, and Hurricane Irene, which hit North Carolina on August 27 with 85 mph winds, and made two additional landfalls in New Jersey and New York the next day.” By the time tropical storm Don reached Texas it had weakened to a tropical depression. There seems to be general agreement that favorable steering currents were the principle reason for our good fortune in the U.S.
I made no entries concerning Irene, in spite of the scare in New York because we were being flooded with media information and for those with cable or satellite, the Weather Channel was right on top of things. Since it wasn’t threatening our Central Florida region I held back in the wake of such comprehensive coverage.
The way our season luckily turned out has indeed caused me some considerable concern over the tendency that we humans have toward complacency. In the 6+ years I’ve lived in Citrus County, Florida there have been no tropical systems of any severe nature but the year before I arrived, 2004, was a busy one with Jeanne, Ivan, Frances, and Charlie. None of those named storms were strong enough to create a county-wide wake-up call. Some people were without power for a few days but the storms did not create events comparable to those which reverberate in our heads for years to follow – like Andrew, for example, which destroyed my home (in Homestead, Florida) in 1992.
I have heard tales of real estate agents in the area boasting that Citrus County possesses some sort of special immunity for whatever reason. I refute that notion absolutely. There is nothing about the environment that affords it the luxury of special protection other than the high sand ridges that minimize storm surge potential for those who live far enough inland from the Gulf. For example, my house sits at an elevation of 55′ above mean sea level so I don’t anticipate storm surge events. However, high water from heavy rains is a distinct possibility.
In any event I urge you who live in my area to NOT ignore the fact that you live in hurricane country. There are so many things about hurricanes that should not be discounted. For example, doubling the wind velocity actually quadruples it’s potential force. So a 60 mph wind has four times the ability to do harm compared to a 30 mph wind. Here is a link to a site which I put together regarding “hurricane misconceptions.” http://ztechzone.net/learningzone/science/science55/hurricanes.html
Coming next: My Christmas Greeting and Reflections.
Several years ago this bag of corn chips was purchased somewhere in Southern California. Shortly afterwards one of my two former students hiking the Mt. Whitney trail with me pulled it out of his backpack when we were taking a break at the 11,395′ benchmark near Consultation Lake. Adam and Carl were game hikers and a joy to be with. I’ve lost track of Adam but Carl (Opper) is an earth science professor at St. Petersburg College. He makes me proud.
I must admit that right now I have a problem with this image:
IT ACCURATELY DEPICTS
HOW MY ABDOMEN FEELS THIS EVENING!
That strange statement will be explained in a moment.
Of course the reason why the bag is near bursting is because the atmospheric pressure upon it is so much less than it was where it was packaged and sealed. The image also illustrates that when air rises, it expands. Interestingly, the “heat” within the air inside the bag is spread out over a greater volume due to the expansion. Therefore, were it measured, one would find the temperature of the air at any point inside the bag to be colder than it was at the beginning of the hike. But, the amount of heat inside the bag would be essentially the same as at the beginning of the hike, except for the small amount lost due to radiation cooling of the bag’s surface.
Did you catch that? When air rises and expands the temperature changes but the amount of heat remains essentially the same. I was reminded many times during my years of teaching that many people do not discriminate between the word, heat and the word, temperature. The fact is, they do not mean the same thing. For example, it takes a lot more heat to increase a gallon of room temperature water up to boiling than to increase a quart of room temperature water up to boiling – though the temperatures of each once the heating was accomplished would be the same at boiling.
When unsaturated air rises, its temperature drops at a rate of about 1degree C. per 100 meters of ascent! When saturated air rises its temperature drops at a rate of about 0.6 degrees C. per 100 meters. The reduction (retardation) is due to the fact that when saturated air is rising and being further cooled by expansion – condensation occurs which releases heat; the heat released slows down the rate of expansion cooling.
This is the crux of adiabatic cooling, a subject which will come up sooner or later at this site (as well as adiabatic heating). NOW: Back to the strange comment about my abdomen.
Even before we returned to our Florida home from our month-long stay at our mountain cabin I knew that something inside my lower abdomen was not quite right. After getting back to Florida I investigated on-line and correctly reached the conclusion that I had a hernia. The surgeon found a second one when he examined me. I had surgery that took a little over two hours early in the afternoon on Monday. The surgeon found a third hernia while he was in there looking around with his magic wand, the laparoscope.
All went well. The surgery was done on an out-patient basis. That’s not a complaint. Once my head hit the pillow at home I felt very tired but I was not sleepy! I was so relieved that I jabbered off and on all night long. My poor wife! Perhaps the medication played a role in that.
The surgery is the main reason for my inactivity on line – that plus the fact that there is no tropical weather going on right now, being near the end of the official season. I’ve read that it’s over but my feeling always at this time of year is, “It ain’t over ’til it’s over!” spoken first (I think) by the great living sage, Yogi Berra. Out-of- season storms have occurred though such events are relatively rare. Here are two examples:
1) Hurricane Alice formed at 1 A.M. EST December 30, 1954 and continued as a hurricane into January 6, 1955. Here’s a plot.
2) A hurricane formed on March 6, 1908. It is called both “The March, 1908 Hurricane” and “1908 Hurricane #1.” Here’s a plot.
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Some physicists prefer to use the term “Coriolis Effect” over Coriolis Force claiming that it is only an apparent force. I tend to agree with that.
The Coriolis force is something that just about everyone in school learns about at one time or another. To be sure, it is a topic in secondary school earth science and physics courses. A low percentage of students enroll in the latter but a very large number are exposed to the former partly because in many school systems earth and/or environmental science is required. Non-science majors in college enroll in earth and/or environmental sciences partly because it is perceived to be far easier than some of the other options – e.g. physics or chemistry.
The crux of the Coriolis force with regard to earth is that because our planet is rotating – objects and fluids in motion tend to deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. The larger the circulation system the more there is likely to be an obvious response to the force. Physicists, by the way, tell us that it is but an “apparent” force and that it is more accurate to call it the Coriolis “effect” which I intend to do from here on. There is no need to debate the term here but if you want to learn more about the Coriolis effect I suggest you use both terms in your search.
Earth’s period of rotation is once per day. The rotational direction is from west to east. If you looked at earth from “above” the north pole you would discover that the rotation is counterclockwise, and if you looked at the earth from “below” the south pole you would find a clockwise rotation. If you have difficulty envisioning that “reversal” I recommend that you pick up an item and rotate it watching the rotation from one end of the axis. Then continue rotating it in the same direction – don’t stop – but view it from the other end of the axis. You should observe the reversal; from one end it will be counterclockwise and from the other end it will be clockwise.
SPECIAL NOTE: One of the greatest myths or misconceptions in physics is that the Coriolis effect determines the direction of rotation of water down a toilet or other drain. That is absolutely untrue. If you live in the United States and observe the direction the water moves down a toilet in your dwelling, then, crate it up and ship it to New Zealand and have someone install it there, upon flushing the water would go down the same way.
Next, look at the demonstrations shown on Quick Time at the following site. Before you go there take note of this. The first boy, wearing the blue headgear is rotating clockwise when the playground device is viewed from atop the axis of rotation so his setup is analogous to the southern hemisphere. The other two boys (one with red headgear and the other bare-headed) are rotating counterclockwise so their setup is analogous to the northern hemisphere.
Hopefully you saw that the first boy’s ball went to HIS left as would be expected in the southern hemisphere (clockwise) and the other two experienced the opposite (to THEIR right) as would be expected for the northern hemisphere (counterclockwise). You might want to scroll down a little further on that page and you will find a Quick Time animation of a ball deflecting to the right on a rotating table. The rotation will not be apparent because the camera was fixed above the table and rotating at exactly the same period. Since the ball deflects to the right you should correctly deduce that the rotation of the table was counterclockwise like the rotation of earth from the northern hemisphere point of view.
There are many examples of the Coriolis effect here on earth. Cold air masses in the northern hemisphere rotate clockwise because of the right turn of the air which, after sinking toward the surface flows outward from the domal system’s high pressure core; this is a great example of an anticyclone. But my favorite example of the Coriolis phenomenon, surprisingly, is not an atmospheric example. It is the manner in which most of the water being carried by the oceanic gyres turns right in the northern hemisphere, especially when it reaches a continental margin and left in the southern hemisphere especially when it reaches a continental margin. Observe the image below where I have removed all but the gyre components of oceanic surface circulation.
SPECIAL NOTE: Though not discussed here, it is the general circulation of the atmosphere at or near the surface that creates these gyres and general circulation is guided by the Coriolis effect. If you wish to learn more about the “general circulation” of the atmosphere, other terms are global circulation, planetary circulation, and large macroscale circulation.
Have you noticed – I have not explained the earth’s Coriolis effect! I have described it, I have linked you to visual evidence, I have described a meteorological example and shown you an oceanic example via a very generalized map of the 5 oceanic gyres. But I have not provided an explanation other than indicating that it is caused by rotation of the earth. If you have stuck with me to this point, I want to entice you with an “issue” that has often remained unaddressed/overlooked by some teachers and learners of meteorology. That is this: If the Coriolis effect is an important influence in large scale weather systems, and since hurricanes are synoptic scale (a type of macroscale) system, why do hurricane winds turn left in the northern hemisphere and right in the southern hemisphere? THAT WILL BE THE TOPIC OF MY NEXT TUTORIAL POST AND IT WILL BE COMING SOON. Now, let’s look at a hurricane.
LEFT CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE AND SEE A RADAR LOOP OF IKE AS HE COMES INTO VIEW AND EVENTUALLY MAKES LANDFALL. WATCH FOR A DISTINCT RIGHT TURN TRACKING DIRECTLY TOWARD HOUSTON JUST BEFORE REACHING THE COAST. IF IT HAD CONTINUED STRAIGHT, THE WINDS AND THE SURGE ALONG THE COAST AT GALVESTON AND SOUTHWESTWARD WOULD HAVE BEEN EVEN WORSE BECAUSE THAT COAST WOULD HAVE BEEN CROSSED BY THE RIGHT-HAND LEADING QUADRANT OF THE STORM
(see item 13 below).
23 COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT HURRICANES
©* Tonie Ansel Toney (see conditions for copying at the end)
I have learned of these misconceptions by communicating through the years with my students, friends, neighbors, attendees of some of the hurricane seminars that I have conducted and visitors to hurricane expos where I have given presentations. Most of this occurred in Florida. I learned that these items have been relatively “common” misconceptions through informal pre-tests I have given to college students at the beginning of certain semesters, answers to questions I have asked in classes during the course of myriad semesters, through conversations with people of all walks of life (and a broad range of ages and experience), and by listening carefully.
ALL 23 UPPER CASE STATEMENTS ARE FALSE IN SOME WAY. BRIEF EXPLANATIONS FOLLOW.
1. IF THE SPEED OF WIND BLOWING DIRECTLY INTO THE SIDE OF A DWELLING CHANGES FROM 40 MPH TO 80 MPH, THE FORCE THAT IT EXERTS INTO THE STRUCTURE WILL INCREASE TO TWICE WHAT IT WAS. THE TRUTH: A doubling of the velocity will cause a four-fold increase of the force upon a surface being struck at right angles. The relationship is “exponential,” not “linear.”
2. IF, DURING A HURRICANE, YOUR TRUE WIND DIRECTION IS FROM THE SOUTH, THE HURRICANE’S EYE IS TO THE NORTH OF YOU. THE TRUTH: It is generally west of you. Hurricane winds move approximately parallel to (or concentric with) the nearly circular eye-wall. A good rule-of-thumb for eye location (in the Northern Hemisphere) is: Imagine standing with the wind at your back. Extend your left arm out from your side and your hand will be pointing toward the eye.
3. IF AN APPROACHING HURRICANE IS ABOUT ONE DAY AWAY, PRUNING OF TREES IS ADVISABLE. THE TRUTH: It is too late to prune at that time – it should have been done much sooner, preferably prior to the hurricane season. Pruned material must be disposed of properly – if lying around the items can become a dangerous airborne hazards. Please read on by clicking here; there are 20 more which might interest you. And, don’t miss viewing the animated image of Ike at the beginning of this post.